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How does male infertility differ from female infertility?

Male infertility is typically rooted in issues related to sperm production, quality, or delivery. This can include factors like low sperm count, reduced sperm motility (movement), abnormal sperm shape. These problems can be due to genetics, hormonal imbalances, infections, lifestyle choices (like smoking or excessive alcohol consumption), or certain medications.

Diagnosing male infertility involves a semen analysis, which examines the sperm count, motility, morphology, and other relevant parameters. Additional tests might be conducted to identify any underlying medical conditions or genetic factors contributing to the infertility.

Female infertility stems from a range of factors affecting the female reproductive system. These can include irregular ovulation or the absence of ovulation, blocked fallopian tubes due to infections or surgeries, uterine abnormalities, endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), hormonal imbalances, and age-related decline in egg quality and quantity.

Diagnosing female infertility involves a comprehensive assessment of medical history, menstrual cycle patterns, hormone levels, and sometimes imaging studies or minor procedures to evaluate the reproductive organs.

In many instances, both male and female factors can contribute to infertility, and a thorough evaluation of both partners' reproductive health is crucial for effective diagnosis and treatment.


  1. Skoracka K, Ratajczak AE, Rychter AM, Dobrowolska A, Krela-Kaźmierczak I. Female Fertility and the Nutritional Approach: The Most Essential Aspects. Adv Nutr. 2021 Dec 1;12(6):2372-2386. doi: 10.1093/advances/nmab068. PMID: 34139003; PMCID: PMC8634384.

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