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How does testosterone work in the body?

In the body, testosterone works by exerting its effects by binding to androgen receptors within cells, influencing gene expression and subsequent physiological responses. In the hypothalamus, testosterone inhibits the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to decreased secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary gland. This, in turn, reduces testosterone production in the testes via a negative feedback loop. Testosterone influences various bodily functions, including the development of male reproductive tissues, muscle and bone growth, fat distribution, and red blood cell production. Additionally, it impacts mood, cognition, and sexual functions. The androgen receptor's distribution in different tissues underlies testosterone's wide-ranging effects.


  1. Hancox, R. J., & Chu, E. (2018). The Effect of Testosterone on Cardiovascular Disease: A Critical Review of the Literature. The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal, 12(1), 13-25. doi: 10.2174/1874192401812010013

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